BIRKENMAJER Ludwik Antoni—doctor of philosophy, professor of Jagiellonian University, b. May 18, 1855 in the vicinity of Lipsko (at that time the Cieszanowski district). d. November 20, 1929, an active member of PAU, commander of the Order of Polonia Restituta, commander of the Swedish royal Order of the Polar Star, member of many scientific associations, a Franciscan tertiary. Between 1873 and 1878 he studied in Vienna and Lwów (Lvov), mainly under the direction of the eminent Polish mathematician Professor W. Żmurek, and also Professor Staniecki, Fabian, Radziszewski, and others. In 1879 with his work His unquenchable scientific interest assisted by his exceptional abilities bore fruit in over a hundred publications in the mathematical sciences and the history of these sciences. The first group of questions that interested him concerned mathematical analysis, geometry, theoretical physics, geophysics, and astronomy. The following are noteworthy: (1) contributions to the theory of kinetic equilibrium of a liquid in a uniform vortex, the graviational field, and the shape of the terrestrial spheroid; (2) observations of inequality in the movements of double stars and the first determination in the world of the position of a satellite’s orbit in relation to a straight line that connects a double system with the Sun (the results were made public in 1886); (3) thermometric studies of lakes in the Tatra mountains (results made public in in 1901); (4) the gravimetric studies in Poland, and the sixth in the world, using Sterneck’s pendulum (series I—1897, series II—1918). Birkenmajer documented this part of his scientific work in the following works: The second group of questions he studied concerned the history of the mathematical sciences, chiefly in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Here Birkenmajer’s work was dominated by his intention to write an exhaustive biography of Copernicus in which the basic emphasis would be on the history of that scholar’s thought. He studied manuscripts in Polish, German, Swedish, Italian, and British libraries, and on their basis wrote a fundamental monograph: Birkenmajer’s short treatise, Another important work (together with Jan Łos and Eugeniusz Barwiński) was Besides Copernican studies, Birkenmajer is known as a historian of the mathematical sciences from a monograph about Marcin Bylica of Olkusz (1892–1893) and works on Stanisław Pudłowski (d. 1645) and T. L. Burattingi (d. 1681). Due to Birkenmajer’s efforts the following works were also published: Marcin Król’s W. Horbacki, Paweł Tarasiewicz, Zbigniew Pańpuch |

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