BALEY Stefan—psychologist, philosopher, and physician, b. February 4, 1885 in Borke Wielke near Tarnopol, d. November 13, 1952 in Warsaw.

He studied Polish literature, philosophy, and medicine in Lwów, and psychology in Berlin and Paris. From 1928 to 1952 he worked at the University of Warsaw where he directed the chair of pedagogical psychology, which he had founded. From 1936 he was director of the Pedagogical Institute of the Polish Teachers’ Association, and from 1938 he was editor of the quarterly “Polskie Archiwum Psychologii” [Polish Archive of Psychology] (presently “Psychologia Wychowawcza” [Pedagogical Psychology]).

Baley’s research interests centered on developmental, pedagogical, and social psychology. He did research on the problematic of the period of maturation, the development of concepts and ethical attitudes in children and adolescents, plastic and literary creativity, maturity with respect to school, difficult and delinquent children, the possibilities of re-educating them and preventative measures, and psychotechnology. He practiced psychological studies by collaboration with schools and by creating psychological clinics. He provided psychological education for teachers.

In his scientific work he was followed the principles of Freudian psychoanalysis (Osobowość twórcza Żeromskiego [Żeromski’s creative personality], Wwa 1936), German biologism (Psychologia wieku dojrzewania [Psychology of the age of maturation], Wwa 1930, Lw 19322), and dialectical materialism (Humanizm socjalistyczny w ujęciu psychologii radzieckiej [Socialistic humanism in the approach of Soviet psychology], Psychologia Wychowawcza [Pedagogical Psychology] 14 (1949); Oblicze nowej psychologii [The faces of the new psychology], Kultura Fizyczna [Physical culture] 5 (1951) n 10). He considered the effect of the the environment on the formation of personality (Psychologiczna problematika wieku dojrzewania [Psychological problematics of the age of maturation], Wwa 1950; Psychologia wychowawcza w zarysie [Pedagogical psychology in outline], Wwa 1938; 19582). His Wprowadzenie do psychologii społecznej (Wwa 1953) is one of the first Polish works in this field. He did not work on the problematic of religiosity among children and adolescents or the influence of the Church on education, but his views were not opposed to the psychology of religious education. He developed the problem of self-knowledge (Drogi samopoznania [Ways of self-knowing], Kr 1946), where, among other things, he considered the moral culture of Polish Catholicism.

M. Ziemnowicz, Stefan Baley na tle współczesnej epoki [Stefan Baley in the context of the contemporary epoch], Roczniki Humanistyczne [Humanistic Annuals] 4 (1954) n. 3, 141–167; M. Żebrowska, Profesor Stefan Baley, pedagog, naukowiec, człowiek [Professor Stefan Baley, pedagogue, scientist, man], Psychologia Wychowawcza [Pedagogical psychology] 11 (1968), 299–317.

Barbara Kiereś

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