BABENSTUBER Ludwig—philosopher and theologian, b. 1660 in Deining, d. April 5, 1726 in Ettal (Bavaria).

He entered the Benedictines in 1682. After philosophical and theological studies (1683–1689) at the Benedictine University in Salzburg and receiving Holy Orders he became a professor at the same university. He also lectured in philosophy at the cloister of Canons Regular in Schlehdorf (1690–1983). After he received his doctorate in 1695 he lectured in moral theology (1695–1702), scholastic theology (1703–1710), and the Sacred Scripture (1706–1716). From 1706 to 1716 he was vice-chancellor and for three years vice-rector of the school. From 1716 he lived in the cloister in Ettal and continued to teach.

Babenstuber’s most important works are: Deus absconditus in sacramento altaris (Sal 1700); Philosophia thomistica Salisburgensis (I–IV, Dillingen 1704–1705, Au 17383); Vindiciae praedeterminationis physicae (Sal 1707); Tractatus de peccato originali (Sal 1709); Tractatus de Verbo Incarnato (Sal 1709); Quaestiones de Matre Dei (Sal 1712), Ethica supernaturalis Salisburgensis (Au 1718); and Dissertatio theologica (Au 1720).

Babenstuber did his scientific work at a time when the ideas of the Enlightenment were developing. In Salzburg this period was preparing for an epoch characterized by Cartesian rationalism, among other things, in the natural sciences: the mathematicization of the natural sciences, a pragmatic theory of the laws of nature, a return to sources, a critique of sources, and the publication of sources in the historical sciences, philosophy and theology, a growing appreciation of ethnic languages, the beginnings of thought in a spirit of tolerance and secular culture, new forms in the organization of scientific work (academies and scientific associations), increased information for the general public, new discoveries, and the further development of pedagogy. In the university philosophy in Salzburg (the university in Salzburg had been found in 1621 on the foundations of a school established in the 8th century by the Benedictine abbey of St. Peter), late scholasticism held the crowning position, and in this Thomism held the most important position.

Babestuber was regarded as a Thomist, although in certain questions he took a different position (e.g., he conceived of the act of existence as did J. Capreolus, as a formal moment that constitutes the person); in theological and moral questions he supported moderate probabilism (represented, e.g., by Laymann and Busenbam). In the doctrine of grace and free human will he opposed P. Quesnel and other Jansenists who were regarded, at least in this field, as Thomists.

P. Lindner, Die Werke des Ettaler Professors L. B., Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des Benediktinerordens 34 (1913), 723–729; L. Glueckert, Ludwig B., Benediktinische Monatschrift 8 (1926), 141–148; P. Volk, DHGE VI 14; A. Altermatt, Zum Problem der physischen Praemotion. Die Praemotionslehre nach dem Salzburger Philosophen P. Ludwik Babenstuber OSB, Fr 1931; E. Vinance, La “Philosophia Thomistica” de L. Babenstuber, L 1934; Chronique de L’Institut Supérieur de Philosophie, RNSP 37 (1935), 463–465; P. Glasthaner, NDB I 480; B. Jansen, Quellenbeiträge zur Philosophie in Menediktenorden des 16.–17. Jahrhunderts, Zeitschrift für katolische Theologie 60 (1936), 54–96; A. Kalb, Praesidium und Proffesorenkollege der Benediktiner-Universität Salzburg 1617–1743, Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde 102 (1962), 117–165; Die Salzburger Universität 1622;–1964, Sa 1964.

Stanisław Bafia

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