AUGUSTINE OF ANCONA (Augustine Triumphus Oesa)—a philosopher and theologian, a pro-papal writer in the area of church law, b. around 1241 in Ancona (Italy), d. April 4, 1328 in Naples.

He entered religious life around 1260. He began studies in Paris around 1270 and probably listened to lectures by Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure. At the recommendation of Pope Gregory X he participated in the Council of Lyons (1274). In his order he performed the function of lector. For a short period he was professor of Sacred Scripture in Padua (1297). Between 1302 and 1306 he commented on the Sentences of Peter Lombard at the University of Paris. In his Tractatus contra articulos inventos ad diffamandum Bonifacium VIII (1307–1308) he dealt with King Philip IV the Fair’s accusations against Pope Boniface VIII. In the treatise Super facto Templariorum (1308) he supported the verdict of the University of Paris that forbade the same king from recognizing the Order of Knights Templar as heretics. In the controversy of the French Observants (1310) he opposed the representatives of exaggerated poverty. Between 1313 and 1315 he led the studium generale, during which he was occupied with ecclesiological questions. He studied the question of the authority of the College of Cardinals after the death of the pope and the relations between church authorities and secular authorities. He returned to Italy and again lectured on theology in Padua. From 1322 he was chaplain at the court of Francis of Carrara, then he was advisor and court preacher for King Robert I and his son Charles II in Naples.

In his major work, Summa de Potestate ecclesiastica (1326, publish Au 1473), he took the side of Pope John XXII in the controversy against John of Jandun and Marsilius of Padua who defended the position of the King of Germany, Ludwig IV of Bavaria (emperor from 1328). He formulated questions concerning the primacy and infallibility of the Pope, and the range of the Popes power of an absolutist character superir to secular authorities (potestas directa). He presented Christological doctrine in De duabus naturis in persona Christi (Bol 1508). In his philosophical work De cognitione animae (Bol 1503), a commentary of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, he represented the Augustinian school. In his work we can see the clear influence of the views of Thomas Aquinas adapted to the position of Giles of Rome, from whom he took the distinction between esse and essentia. In metaphysics in the question of God he took the views of Henry of Ghent, where God is not the proper subject of metaphysics because metaphysics directly concerns being as being. He was regarded as one of the most important exegetes of the period of scholasticism. In his most important work in this area, Expositio in Evangelium Matthaei (Ve 1321) he presented around 700 questions (the Kraków theologian Benedict Hesse used most of these questions). Other important works are In salutationem et annuntiationem angelicam Deiparae praestitam commentarius (Ly 1506) and Tractatus in orationem Dominicam (R 1587). Some manuscripts of Augustine of Ancona’s works (including commentaries on the epistles of St. Paul and the other apostles, on the Apocalypse, and texts on pastoral theology) are found in the Vatican Library and in the Jagiellonian University.

Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, R 1584; R. Scholz, Die Publizistik zur Zeit Philipps des Schönen und Bonifaz VIII, St 1903, 172–189, 486–501; idem, Unbekannte kirchenpolitische Streitschriften aus der Zeit Ludwigs des Bayern, R 1911, I 191–196, R 1914, II 481–490; H. Hofmann, Kardinalat und kuriale Politik in der 1. Hälfte des 14. Jarhrhunderts, Bleicherode am Harz 1935 (passim); B. Ministeri, De Augustini de Ancona vita et operibus, 7–56, 148–262; U. Horst, Die Lehrautorität des Papstes nach Augustin von Ancona, AAug 53 (1991), 271–303; R. van Gerven, De wereldijke macht van den paus volgens Augustin Triumphus, [no place of publication] 1947; J. Rivière, La probleme de l’Église et le l’État au temps de Philippe le Bel, Lv 1926; M. Schmaus, Die Gotteslehre des Augustins Triumphus nach seinem Sentenzkommentar, in: Aust der Geisteswelt des Mittelalters, Mr 1935, I 896–183; U. Mariani, Chiesa e Stato nei teologi agostiniani del secolo XIV, R 1957, 89–97, 174–198; M. J. Wilks, Papa est nomen iurisdictionis. Augustine Triumphus and the Papal Vicariate of Christ, The Journal of Theological Studies 8 (1957), 71–91; idem, The Problem of Sovereignty in the Latin Middle Ages, NY 1963.

Lesław Magdziarek

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