ANVIKSIKI (Sanskrit—investigation, penetration)—one of the earliest terms used in Indian philosophy to designate philosophy.

According to Kautilya, it is a domain of knowledge including the systems of sankya, yoga and lokayata. A ruler must know it along with the three Vedas (teachings about sacrifice and atman), politics (the art of rule, dandaniti) and agriculture (varta). In the later period (Vatsyayana), anviksiki was regarded as a synomym for reasoning (ayaya) and it was emphasized that it cannot be reduced only to knowledge about atman, since it would then be contained in the Vedas, but that its essential element is doctrine about such elements of discussion and inference as doubt, assumption, the source of true knowledge (pramana), the parts of a syllogism (anumana), etc., and therefore as a separate doctrine it requires its own method (nyayi). Later (at least from the seventh century) the use of this term to designate philosophy gave way to the term “darshana”.

N. S. Junankar, Gautama, the Nyaya Philosophy, Delhi 1978.

Maciej St. Zięba

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