ANDREW GRZYMAŁA OF POZNAŃ—an astronomer, physician, professor of philosophy and medicine in the Kraków Academy, b. around 1425, d. around 1466.

He began his studies in the Academy in 1442 in the department of arts. There in 1443 he obtained the degree of bachelor and in 1447 the degree of master. He was educated in mathematics and astronomy under the direction of Martin Król of Żurawica. He lectured for twenty years in the Kraków Academy, for half this period in the department of liberal arts. Probably during that time he lectured on the Nicomachean Ethics according to the commentary of John Arsen of Langenfeld, a professor from Prague who was alive in the 1380s. He taught astronomy to Peter Gaszowiec and others.

Andrew Grzymała was dean of arts in the winter semester of 1453–1454 and the summer semester of 1458. In 1456 and 1460 he traveled to Rome on university business. He also studied medicine. He received a doctorate in medicine at an Italian university, probably in Perugia, and then transferred to the Kraków medical department where he was dean in 1464 and 1465. While lecturing medicine, he studied canon law and then theology. He obtained a licenciate in canon law and a biblical baccalaureate in theology in 1464 and 1465. For a time he lectured in canon law. In 1465 and 1466 he was Rector of the Academy. He worked to organize the university and represented the university’s interests in the Holy See.

Andrew Grzymała developed clarifications for astronomical tables—Canones Tabularum Resolutarum—which at the time were popular and in competition with the tables of King Alphonse X. His work on the canons concerning how to use the tables was probably done in the chair of mathematics and astronomy established around 1405 by Stobne, a burgher of Kraków. In 1449 this chair was joined to the Collegium Minus. Andrew’s library held many works in theology, the humanities, and natural science. It contained texts by ancient, medieval, and Renaissance authors, for example, De casibus virorum illustrium by Boccaccio, and Leonard Bruni’s drama Poliscene (ms BJ 1954). Andrew used this text in his lectures on rhetoric and poetics. This is the only trace of lectures on the writings of Bruni in fifteenth-century Kraków.

A. Birkmajer, Andrzej Graymała z Poznania, astronom i lekarz z XV wieku [Andrew Grzymała of Poznań, astronomer and physician of the fifteenth century], Kwartalnik Historii Nauki i Techniki [Quarterly of the history of science and technology], 3 (1958), 411; idem, PSB IX 144; J. Zathej, Biblioteka Jagiellońskiej w latach 1364–1492 [Jagiellonian Library in the years 1364–1492], in: Historia Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej 1364–1775], Kr 1966, I 114–117, 127; M. Markowski, Burydanizm w Polsce w okresie przedkopernikańskim [Buridanism in Polan in the pre-Copernican period], SCop 3, Wr 1972, 365; M. Markowski, Powstanie pełniej szkoły astronomicznej w Krakowie, [Rise of the full astronomical school in Kraków], in: Historia astronomii w Polsce [History of astronomy in Poland], Wr 1975, I 91–95.

Małgorzata Kowalewska

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