AJDUKIEWICZ Kazimierz — logician, philosopher, mathematician, physicist, b. December 12, 1890 in Tarnopol, d. April 12, 1963 in Warsaw.
He studied at the University of Lvov from 1908 to 1913 under the direction of K. Twardowski. In 1913 and 1914 he studied in Göttingen (philosophy with E. Husserl and mathematics with D. Hilbert). In 1912 he obtained his doctorate of philosophy, and earned his habilitation in 1921 at the University of Warsaw. Starting in 1922 he was a docent at the University of Lvov, and in 1925 he became an extraordinary professor at the University of Warsaw, then in 1925 at the University of Lvov. In 1934 he became an ordinary professor at the University of Lvov, where he did wide-ranging research and didactic work. He was the chairman of the Polish Philosophical Society in Lvov (1938-1939), and after the war in Poznań and Warsaw (until 1962).
In his teaching, he thoroughly prepared his disciples for professorial work. His disciples include Henryk Mehlberg, Maria Kokoszyńska-Lutman, and Seweryna ze Łuszczeskich Romahnowa. During World War II he taught in secret in Lvov, and starting in 1944 he taught physics rather than philosophy (under the Soviet authorities). From 1945 to 1955 he was director of the Chair of the Theory and Methodology of the Sciences at the University of Adam Mickiewicz in Poznań, and from 1948 to 1952 he was rector at the same university. In 1954 he moved to Warsaw. From 1955 to 1961 he was director of the Second Chair of Logic in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Warsaw, and from 1955 to 1963 he was director of logic in the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology in the Polish Academy of Science (Polska Akademia Nauk — PAN). He was a corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Applied Knowledge (Polska Akademia Umiejętności). He was a cofounder of a new journal "Studia Logica" and became its chief editor in 1953. He was also a member of the International Institute of Philosophy and vice-president of the Section of Logic, Methodology and the Philosophy of Science in the International Union of the History and Philosophy of the Sciences. He received a doctorate honoris causa from the University of Clermont-Ferrand.
Ajdukiewicz published scientific work in the Polish, German and English languages — Z metodologii nauk dedukcyjnuch [On the methodology of the deductive sciences] (Lw 1921); O znaczeniu wyrażeń [On the meaning of expressions] (Lw 1931); Logiczne podstawy nauczania [The logical foundations of teaching] (Wwa 1934); Naukowa perspektywa świata (Scientific perspective of the world) (PF 37 (1934) 409-416); Zmiana i sprzeczność [Change and contradiction](1948); Zagadnienia i kierunki filozofii [Questions and directions of philosophy] (Kr 1949, Wwa 19832); On the Notion of Existence (Studia Philosophica 4 (1949-1950), 7-22); Zarys logiki [Outline of logic] (Wwa 1953, 19596), a collection of various writings under the title: Język i poznanie [Language and cognition] (I-II, Wwa 1960-1965, 19852); Logika pragmatyczna (unfinished word published posthumously, Wwa 1965, 19742).
Ajdukiewicz's works contained many original findings from his investigations. He elaborated his own philosophical conception under the name of radical conventionalism. He improved upon Łukasiewicz's classification of kinds of reasoning. He made an expert analysis of interrogative sentences and introduced a very useful distinction between questions that require resolution and questions that require completion. He made an independent critique of certain primary formulations of reism. In an expert polemic with Marxism he showed that it is not true that every change implies a contradiction. He worked on the problematic of definition from all angles. He discovered a transparent way to index the syntactic categories of linguistic expressions. He showed the difference between correct speech and correct reasoning. He indicated that correct reasoning is reasoning that is in accord with the connections that occur in reality and are not dependent on human decisions or customs. He emphasized that every infallible schema of inference is based upon a logical assertion that asserts a certain objective connection between states of affairs. He held that when we are learning logic, not only do we practice the art of logical thought, but we also come to know certain connections between facts, and these connections constitute the logical structure of the world.
Ajdukiewicz's colleagues and collaborators called him a "profundist", a mind that burrows into the heart of things. Others stressed that Ajdukiewicz had one way to deal with widespread delusion in various domains of philosophy in the broad sense. He calmly took various proposed ideas into his workshop and went straight to their core with a critical mind. As Kotarbiński wrote, he was the most discerning connoisseur and judge of proposed ideas in his time. One who reads Ajdukiewicz's scientific works will clearly see his exceptional responsibility as a scholar for the spoken and written word, and his conviction that human thought is mature only when it finds precise and communicative expression in words.
T. Kotarbiński, Rozprawy logiczne [Logical treatises] Wwa 1964, 7-10; M. Poletylo, MEL 2; W. Buszkowski, Logiczna podstawa gramatyk kategorialnych Adjukiewicza-Lambeka [Logica foundation of the categorical grammars of Adjukiewic-Lambek], Wwa 1984; J. Woleński, Filozoficzna szkoła lwowska-warszawska [The Lvov-Warsaw philosophical school], Wwa 1985; J. Pelc, Wizerunki i wspomnienia [Portraits and memories], Wwa 1994; The Heritage of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, A 1995; Wielcy filozofowie polscy [Great Polish philosophers], Wwa 1997; S. Swieżawski, Przebłyski nadchodzącej epoki, Wwa 1998.