ADELARD OF BATH (Adelhardus Barthoniensis) — philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, b. 1090 in Bath, d. 1160.
Adelard studied in Laon and in Tours; he taught in Paris and Laon; he travelled throughout Italy, Greece and Asia Minor. He was one of the first scholars to bring the mathematical and astronomical views of the Greeks and Arabs to Europe; he translated Euclid (from Arabic) and was the of the first treatise on schooling in Latin, De cura accipitrum (ed. A.E. Sawena, Gro 1937); he presented natural knowledge drawn from the Arabs in Quaestiones naturales ("Beiträge" 4, 1, Mr 1903). According to Adelard of Bath, the same reality is the object of philosophical and scientific knowledge, but as reality is grasped under different aspect. Philosophy studies "idem", namely that which is "identical" and "unchanging", while philocosmia studies "diversum", namely that which changes, the world of things. The forms of things exist both in God's mind (νους [nous]) as individual and simple, and in genera, species and individuals as separate and heterogenous (diversum). From Adelard comes the view that Plato represents wisdom, while Aristotle respresents science.
F. Bliemetzrieder, Adelard von Bath, Mn 1935; E.J. Dijksterjuis, De mechanisering von het wereldeeld, A 1952; Gilson HFS (passim); Adelard of Bath. And English Scientist and Arabit of the Early Twelfth Century, Lo 1987; M. Folkerts, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, Fr 1993, I 151.