ACADEMY OF ZAMOŚĆ (Hippaeum Zamoscianum) — a higher school formed in 1594 by the eminent patron of the culture, John Zamoyski. It was liquidated in 1874 by the Austrian government.

From its inception, it was a lay school with a humanistic profile. It was modeled on the Academy of Strassburg and intended to be a "civil school" (schola civilis) whose graduates would hold positions in the civil service. The organizational and legal education at the school began with a bull from Pope Clement VIII on October 29, 1594. The papal bull permitted the establishment of a university with three secular departments: the liberal arts, law, and medicine. The school received its charter from John Zamoyski in 1595, and on July 5, 1600 a formal act established the school and the Collegiate of Zamość, with positions for seven professors. In 1601, Sigmund III confirmed the act of foundation. From 1637 and on, the school had the right to grant the degree of doctor of philosophy. In 1638 the first lawyer was promoted. In 1648 the department of theology was created, and starting in the same year the school had the right to grant the degree of doctor of theology. The permission to create the department of theology came from Pope Innocent X, and its students came from a clerical seminary that had been founded in 1640. From 1595 to 1648, the Academy of Zamość was at its glory and well-known scholars lectured there: Simon Birkowski, Adam Burski, Thomas Drezner, and John Ursinus (Niedżwiecki). The first lectures were held in 1595. The students were divided according to their nations: Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Prussia-Livonia, and other foreigners.

The purpose of the Academy of Zamość was to educate the young nobility in the humanistic intellectual culture and to prepare them for public work for the state. In the first academic program there was great attention to the learning of foreign languages, public and civil law and a knowledge of how the institutions and offices of the state operated. The school was also intended to undertake systematic work in such scientific domains as classical philology and history.

Simon Szymonowic, with the recommendation of J. Zamoyski, took up the task of organization. He worked together with John Caselius and Szczęsny John Herbut. Szymonowic organized philological research, research on the logic of the Stoics and later Greek medical literature. He also organized research of documents and scientific expeditions (to Constantinople). He initiated contacts with the major scientific centers of England, Belgium, Holland, and Italy. Because of J. Zamoyski, the Academy made contact with the medical school in Padua and directed candidates for professorships in Zamość to Padua. The lawyer Thomas Drezner was sent abroad for studies in Orleans, Paris and Rome. Some foreign professors were also hired: the English lawyer William Bruce, the Italian theologian Dominic Convalis, and the Belgian mathematician Adrian von Roomen — a professor of the University in Würzburg. In 1648, the Italian John Leonicento was hired for the medical department to take the chair of medical botany and anatomy, but he died in the following year before he was able to assume the chair. Polish scholars who were sent to Padua received doctorates there (John Ursinus, Simon Birkowski, Jan Sechinus, Simon Piechovius, and Caspar Scholz).

After the death of J. Zamoyski in 1605, in 1610 there was a decision to unite the Zamość Collegiate and the Academic College, which led to many years of competitive conflicts that hindered the development of the school. In the first period of its existence, the school was directed by a rector, but after the union a prelate-scholastic held the deciding vote, and his power was limited only by the Bishop of Chełm. Around 1615, the Bishop of Chełm George Zamoyski tried to subordinate the school completely to himself. The result was that the school lost its lay character. This led to a conflict with the feudal lord of the school. This conflict was ended by a decree of Paul V recognizing that the lords of Zamość had the right to govern the Academy. In 1678, the Bishop of Chełm renewed his efforts to gain power over the school. This led to conflict that continued unabated for twenty years. The result was the decline of the Academy. The struggle for power over the Academy ended this time with the school being subordinated to the Bishop in 1694, but it could not be revived in a scientific or scholarly sense.

Along with the problems connected with struggles for authority over the school, there were difficulties because of a lack of faculty. They began to leave for the first time from 1614 to 1717. The professors of Zamość began to depart to take up chairs in Kraków or in municipal public institutions (councillors and writers). The professors who were called from Kraków at that time included John Rybkowic, Andrew Piotrkowczyk, Melchior Poróba, and Sebastian Siekanowic, but only Siekanowic remained permanently in Zamość. This situation persuaded the authorities of the University of Kraków to propose in 1616 that the Academy of Zamość could become a daughter of the University. The problem was then solved, but the flow of the faculty turned out to be permanent and was the greatest source of pain for the Zamość school.

Although it was created to educate the young nobility, from the beginning the majority of students were bourgeois. In 1617, 20% of the students were of noble descent, and in 1626 15% were of noble descent. Thereby the model of the founder was lost, and the Zamość Academy became similar to the Jagiellonian University in its organization, didactic methods and program of studies. After the difficulties were overcome, the situation in the Academy of Zamość stabilized and the school even became more active up until the time of the Swedish invasion. The number of students rose from 70 a year in 1595 to 1635 to 118 or 120 in the years 1635 to 1646. Its influence extended mainly to the counties of Chełm, Czerwonorusk, Wołyn, Podol, and Kiev. Representatives of the Russian magnate families received their education there (Kisielowi, Puzynowi, Wiśniowieski).

In 1627 the school suffered losses resulting from a conflagration in Zamość. Some of the Academy's buildings including its printing house were destroyed. In 1639, work began on a new building.

The school's property came from bequests and foundations, both from the Zamoyski feudal lords (John and Thomas) and from others, including professors. Those who helped with gifts and foundations were S. Birkowski (founder of the Chair of History), Simon Szymonowic (founder of the two chairs of theology), Simon Ługowski, Jacob Skwarski (he provided funds for the department of law), and Caspar Schulz (the founder of the chair of practical medicine). The gifts of K. Trądkowski, W. Borzęcki, S. Szymoniwic (1400 works), S. Riccius, and P. Oleśnicki also enriched the Academy's library.

After the Swedish invasion, the school went through a crisis. There were financial problems, a shortage of faculty, and a diminishing student body. The years from 1648 to 1745 were the time of its downfall. From 1674 to 1746 only the department of liberal arts remained in existence. The chief subjects were Latin grammar, ancient history (Greece and Rome), geography and arithmetic. In the 1670s the situation improved. In 1675 Aloysius Anzelieri, a graduate of the medical school in Padua, took the chair of medicine. At the same time the library's collections were put in order and catalogued. In 1669, King Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki granted the prerogatives of the nobility to the professors (as had been done in the Kraków school), in order to protect their rights. In 1677, the feudal lord Marcin Zamoyski established the Academic Residence in the name of professor W. Staringel for eleven students. Because of a lack of funds, from the seventeenth century on the only lecturers were canons. In 1699, the Bishop of Chełm, Nicholas Święcicki unsuccessfully tried to reform the school. The feudal lord Thomas Zamoyski also tried to bring about a reform with the permission of Pope Benedict XIV. Bishop Andrew Stanisław Załuski had a project for reform that foresaw the creation of new chairs, the hiring of foreign professors, and sending students to foreign schools. This project was not realized on account of a shortage of funds. Bishop Wojciech Łascaris was appointed by a visitor from the Pope and carried out a partial reform in 1746. The Bishop divided the Academy of Zamość into four departments and what were called minor classes. Although the chapters were opposed to extending the range of the changes, from 1756 to 1784 the school slowly began to climb out of its decline. In 1722, however, Zamość was occupied by the Austrians, which hindered the process of renewal, and in 1784 the Austrian government definitively closed the school.

The Academy of Zamość was notable chiefly in the history of logic and classical philology.

J. K. Kochanowski, Dzieje Akademii Zamojskiej (1894–1784) [History of the Academy of Zamośą], Kr 1899–1900; J. A. Wadowski, Wiadomośą o profesorach Akademii Zamojskiej [Information about the professors of the Academy of Zamość], Wwa 1899–1900; S. Łempicki, Działalność Jana Zamoyskiego na polu szkolnictwa 1573–1605 [The activity of John Zamoyski in the field of schooling 1573–1605], Kr 1921; J. Riabinin, Profesorowie Akademii Zamoyskiej w świetle aktów [The professors of the Academy of Zamoóć in light of acts], in: Szymon Szymonowicz i jego czasy [Simon Szymonowicz and his times], Zamość 1929; H. Barycz, Akademia Zamojska [Academy of Zamość], in History Nauki Polskiej [History of Polish Science], Wr 1970 II 62-65; Szymon Szymonowicz. Humanista i organizator Akademii Zamojskiej [Simon Szymonowicz. Humanist and organizor of the Academy of Zamość], Zamość 1994 (bibliogr.).

Małgorzata Kowalewska

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