ABRAHAM IBN DAUD Abraham ibn Daud ha-Levi, also called, Rabad I, Avendedehut or Avendehat - a philosopher who lived in Toledo in the years 1110–1180.

He studied in Cordova. He was a translator in the school established by the bishop of Toledo, Raymond of Sauvetât (1126-1151). He worked under the direction of the Dominican Gundissalvi beside John of Spain. There the works of Aristotle and the Arab philosophers were translated into Latin. He was the first Jewish philosopher to systematize Aristotle's works. His historical work Sefer ha-Qabbalah (The Book of Tradition, critical edition, G.H. Coehen, Ph 1967, Lo 1969) is better known than his important philosophical work Sefer ha Emunah ha-Ramah (Book of Sublime Faith, ed. G. Weiss, Lo 1986). Under the influence of Avicenna he tried to resolve the problem of free will at three levels: the physical-metaphysical level, the religious level, and the ethical level. In his works he used precise language and logical methods of demonstration, and rejected the mystical or literary style of writing that was popular in Jewish philosophy at that time. Against the tradition up to that time, he thought that the road to the knowledge of the truth is philosophical and rational investigation. He wanted to find agreement between the formulations of the Bible and faith, and that which can be attained by way of reason. In his own radical rationalism, which demanded that tradition and the reading of the Bible be subjected to the requirements of reason, he was a forerunner of Moses Maimonides.

J. Guttmann, Religionphilosophie des Abraham ibn Daud aus Toledo, Gö.; 1879; S. Horovitz, Die Psychologie bei den jüdaischen Religions-Philosophen des Mittelaters von Saadia bis Maimuni, Farnborough 1970; Z. Kuksiewicz, Zarys filozofii średniowiecznej, [Outline of mediaeval philosophy], Wwa 1973, 19823, 559-560; 646; Gilson History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages, 1955 London, 228, 640; T.A. Smidt van Gelder-Fontaine, Een vergeten denker, Abraham ibn Daud: een onderzoek naar de bronnen en de structuur van "Ha-Emunah ha-Ramah" [A 1986].

Tomasz Mioduszewski

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